Avicenna (370h/980-428h/1037). Born in a family Shiite Iran, which migrated from Balkh in Bactria, to Bukhara, in present-day Uzbekistan, he knew everything that one could find in his world, the dar al-Islam , and time: science and traditional Islamic law, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, logic, physics, metaphysics, etc.. Begins, ceases philosophy in a work that wants to know the total and organically unified? Nothing made dam philosophical curiosity. The lesson of his life is precious: the philosopher is in Islam that nothing can stop that in the effort to understand, nor the letter of the Koran, which he interprets, or the beauties of heaven, it organizes, nor the passions of men, that it intends to reform, or the silence of nature, being questioned. It is repugnant to the blind adherence and intends to establish an authority more legitimate than that of lawyers or theologians, the authority of one who knows reveal what is hidden.
It is impossible to separate the Islamic philosophy of the prevalent theme of love or Avicenna. From the Epistle of love , in which Avicenna was the love that moves any substance to his perfection, to Sadra, who made love the experience of self-effacement, the self-extinction of God, love philosophical intellectual love of God, but also ardent love of the beloved man, because for our thinkers, influenced by the works as they Ahmad Ghazali, human love is the model of divine love.
We understand that the philosophy of Ishrâqiyyûn have influenced long-term course of Islamic philosophy. Avicenna reconciled the rational and the fruition knowledge ( al-dawq ) or predictive text input, it also legitimized an image of the intellectual soul surrounded by bodily powers, born with the body, but independent. The philosophical notion of self-sufficiency of the soul, liberty land owes much to Avicenna. If Islam is too often a private religion of the meaning of human freedom, this impression can be corrected by the observation that we have just made. Islamic philosophy became aware of the prevalence of freedom of the soul, to free choice, but especially in the struggle to regain his country, to free themselves and cultivate self-sufficiency ( istighna ) that mimics the divine freedom.
Under the influence ishraqi , philosophy slid easily in the course of Neoplatonism, already in use in Falasifa .In Platonic forms, the themes of internal struggle, He adopted the themes of the Stoics "citadel" of the soul, besieged by the passions, for anything that does not depend on us, and that is the soul worry about anything but what really matters for self is to "deify" coincide as much as possible with the principle of light, to return to the world that is his. The deification of the self through becoming an angelic man, who, according to a formula of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, must always strive to be on top of itself. "
The philosopher is not a specialist in issues "philosophical" which would fall within its exclusive jurisdiction. It is quite understandable that those who have the chance to direct experience, a mode of knowledge of the "presence" of the divine, express, whether poets, spiritual or Sufi commentators the Koran.
The Avicenna world is divided into two spheres of equal importance, the manner of the Peripatetics: a sublunar world and a higher world, culminating in a God, Light and Intelligence, final cause of all causes and therefore all movements. Avicenna recasts the ontology of Islam. It does so from the following principle: "There is nothing in Being, nothing but God." All beings, in their multiplicity, express the divine being, which is absolute, determined their lives. God is in a sense, immanent in all things and, conversely, everything is an apparition, a demonstration, a mirror of God.
Philosophies of aillor s II Thoughts Arabic and Persian, Christian Jambet